What are the problems with Camellia cultivation?
What are the problems with oil tea planting?
1 Current status of oil tea plantation
Oil tea is a characteristic industry and traditional industry in China, and China is known as “granary oil sea”. At this stage, China’s oil tea planting area has reached 34,700 hm2. Since 2010, the agricultural sector has continuously increased investment in the oil-tea plantation industry and actively summarized the experience of oil-tea cultivation. At present, the current situation of oil-tea cultivation in China is as follows.
1.1 Industry awareness gradually formed
At present, China has taken the camellia industry as the main pillar industry, and timely established the leading group of oil tea industry development, and formulated reasonable and effective oil tea according to the development status. The opinions on industrial development will make overall planning for the development of the future oil tea industry, and the development of the oil tea industry will be included in the scope of county-level target management assessment. At the same time, the demonstration site of oil tea planting was established, which actively promoted the stable development of the oil tea industry, and continuously increased the funds of the oil tea industry project to promote infrastructure construction in the form of participation by the whole people.
1.2 The scale of industrial development is large.
The establishment of oil tea planting cooperatives, oil tea planting professional teams, and oil tea bases has promoted the large-scale development of the oil tea industry. It can reach 0.87 million hm2, and the enthusiasm of planters is constantly improving, which makes the construction of oil tea base show a large-scale development trend .
2 The main problems in the cultivation of Camellia oleifera
2.1 The breeding system is not perfect
Although the planting area of Camellia oleifera has increased year by year, the construction of Camellia oleifera planting base has been continuously promoted, but Lack of scientific recognition of excellent varieties, some farmers do not pay enough attention to the prevention and control of Camellia pests and diseases, coupled with the imperfect cultivation system of oil tea, resulting in slower renewal of excellent seedlings, unable to meet the basic requirements of the modernization of the Camellia industry, and ultimately lead to a decline in the production capacity of Camellia oleifera The reduction of oil tea production directly affects the development of agriculture.
2.2 Single management method
In the traditional oil tea plantation management work, the fixed planting technology is mainly used. Under the condition that science and technology have not been popularized, the development speed of the oil tea industry slow. Nowadays, China’s society has entered a period of rapid development, and all technologies have been optimized. Therefore, the cultivation of oil tea must also keep pace with the development of the times. However, in the actual work, there are still problems such as poor planting techniques and low awareness of breeding improved varieties. The main manifestation is that the seedlings are planted, resulting in the lack of excellent varieties and directly affecting the yield of Camellia oleifera.
2.3 Shortage of funds
The lack of funds has affected the smooth management of the oil tea base. Therefore, some farmers only pay attention to the area of oil tea planting, and do not pay attention to the pests and diseases in the process of oil tea growth. Therefore, it has an adverse impact on the efficiency of oil tea planting [Jishan Huayao].
3 Effective strategies for solving the problem of oil tea planting
3.1 Actively building a demonstration base for oil tea
In order to fundamentally improve the status of oil tea planting, it is necessary to gather local governments and counties. Level leaders and the strength of the people, build a batch of high-yield demonstration bases for oil tea, actively adopt advanced technology and management methods to promote the healthy growth of oil tea, and promote the rapid renewal of fine varieties. At the same time, strengthen the technical guidance of planting, and actively use the theory to drive practice. As the display platform of oil tea planting technology, the Camellia demonstration base will organize farmers to learn advanced oil tea planting techniques and pest control measures, and constantly update the knowledge structure of planters to promote the professional skills of planters.
3.2 Comprehensive mastery of breeding and planting techniques
3.2.1 Selection and germination. Pick the seeds from the larger fruit and remove the small particles. Then, the selected seeds are air-dried and disinfected to avoid exposure to sunlight, and the seeds should be placed in a ventilated, cool place. The sterilized seeds are then placed in moist sand for storage and a film is applied over them for germination. If the number of grafts is large, it can be germinated in batches.
3.2.2 Scion collection and storage. Choose the robust shoots that are full of leaf buds without pests and insects, and insert them into the sand bed or cellar in the shade to keep the humidity.
3.2.3 The choice of nursery. The land with sufficient sunshine and convenient irrigation and drainage is used as a nursery. The nursery needs to apply organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer to ensure the soil is fertile and nutritious. After the seedbed is made, the width is controlled at 120 cm. In addition, the shade shelter should be set up, and the height of the shelter is controlled at about 180 cm.
3.2.4 Grafting processing. First, cut at 2.0 cm above the cotyledon, remove the growth point, then cut a knife at the incision, smash the rootstock into two halves, then pour the scion between the left thumb and the middle finger, and close the tip of the index finger. A knife was cut at a distance of 0.2 cm from the base of the bud. The slope was 30° and the face was 1.2 cm long. Then, the inverted scion is symmetrically slanted with the first knife to make the scion into a thin wedge shape. Finally, a knife is cut obliquely 0.3 m above the cusp, the scion is cut, and the cutting anvil is processed, and then the scion can be embedded.
3.2.5 Water and fertilizer management. In the process of oil tea growth, we should pay close attention to the moisture content of the soil, especially during the dry season, to check the water regularly to ensure sufficient water in the soil and dry the water. When fertilizing, distinguish seedlings from adult plants, and control the frequency of fertilization in autumn. The best fertilization time is 9-10 months per year, 667 m2 can be applied with farmyard manure 2 000 kg, organic fertilizer 300 kg, and phosphate fertilizer 52 kg. Camellia is healthy.
3.2.6 Pest control. In the process of pest control, actively establish the prevention and control thinking of “prevention first, comprehensive management”. At present, the main pests and diseases that threaten the growth of Camellia oleifera are Camellia oleifera, Camellia oleracea, and Chaetan. For the prevention and control of oil soft rot, the tea plantation with excessive density can be pruned in time to ensure good ventilation and light transmission; the nursery ground is placed in a well-drained place, spraying 1:1:120 Bordeaux mixture, or 50% of the anti-bacterial WP can be diluted with water to 300-600 times to spray to prevent the spread of the disease. For Camellia oleifera, the roots of the seedlings can be watered with 1% copper sulphate solution, effectively avoiding the expansion of the disease and achieving good control effects. For Camellia oleifera, it is necessary to strengthen the management of Camellia oleifera forest, so that the forest can be ventilated and light-transmitted, and the pests and leaves will be cut off and burned in the early stage of the disease to avoid the spread of the disease. For the tea beetle, before the emergence of the adult, the main stem and the root and neck are painted with white paint to prevent spawning; artificial capture is carried out during the adult period; the appropriate amount of imidacloprid is injected into the cadre of the infected tree in time, and the hole is sealed with clay. Good effective prevention.
3.3 Increase capital investment
Local governments should increase capital investment in the oil tea industry and introduce relevant preferential policies to attract enterprises or individuals to invest and broaden the sources of funds. At the same time, it should be ensured that the investment funds are used to implement the implementation, such as the introduction of advanced technology, recruitment of professionals, etc., to provide basic support for the production of oil tea.