Talking about daily management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Huo Miao, People’s Liberation Army 306 Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, External Contact Center, Zuo Tianyu, Lu Hongcai finishing
COPD history related factors
COPD is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Long-term heavy smoking, long-term exposure to dust or smoke, harmful particles or harmful gases, genetic predisposition, autumn and winter cold season, middle-aged and elderly people, chronic pulmonary heart disease history.
Principal complaint and medical history are very important foundations; pulmonary function tests can provide a basis for diagnosis, bronchodilation test and bronchus The provocation test can judge the condition and differential diagnosis; the necessary blood index examination can be used as an important reference.
Daily management goals
Understand the condition, adhere to standardized treatment; prevent factors that may lead to aggravation and acute attack; promptly take interventions under the guidance of a doctor to prevent The condition is aggravated; self-care and rehabilitation measures maintain a good lung function; prevent the serious development of the disease, prevent acute exacerbations and seizures; maintain optimal lung function and ensure a good quality of life.
Quitting smoking is the first step in self-management
Smoking cessation can improve COPD and improve quality of life. The COPD Guide states that smoking cessation is effective. Relieving the decline in lung function in patients with COPD, smoking cessation requires perseverance and persistence, because tobacco is highly addictive, usually takes 2 to 3 times to quit smoking successfully. Studies have shown that every time you quit smoking, you will be stronger, and you can learn more about how to successfully quit smoking.
Smoking is the most important risk factor for COPD. Paper cigarettes contain a variety of harmful ingredients, such as tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide, which cause squamous epithelial metaplasia, mucosal gland hyperplasia, hypertrophy and bronchospasm in the bronchial mucosa, which is conducive to infection and promote disease. The more smoking, the more severe the loss of lung function. Once you quit smoking, you can reduce the inhalation of harmful gases or harmful particles, and reduce the abnormal inflammatory response of the airways and lungs. Quitting smoking is an important and easy preventive measure.
COPD patients consume 20% to 40% more energy than normal people in a quiet state, due to breathing Increased energy consumption, tissue hypoxia, digestive and dysfunction, often lead to malnutrition. Especially in patients with severe COPD, weight loss or weight loss, dry skin, reduced subcutaneous fat, muscle atrophy, chapped lips, etc., malnutrition can easily cause immune dysfunction and infection, the three are causal, and form a vicious circle. Appropriate use of foods with high protein content and rich in vitamins, such as dairy products, eggs, gravy. Usually diet should be light, not too salty, regular quantitative, eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, can eat 250 g of milk a day, eggs 1 ~ 2, a variety of meat 150 g, fresh vegetables 500 ~ 750 g, fruit 100 ~ 200 g.
Work and rest combined with physical exercise
Moderate physical exercise helps increase muscle blood flow and oxygen utilization and increase lung capacity To help improve the general condition of the body, improve the patient’s independent living ability and quality of life, and reduce the number of hospitalizations and time. Patients with COPD often have insufficient long-term exercise due to difficulty in breathing, which reduces activity endurance, and respiratory dysfunction is more obvious, forming a vicious circle. According to the condition, you can choose the sports and exercise intensity that you can. Walking, jogging, radio exercises, fixed bicycles, housework and other aerobic exercises, exercise the upper limbs and lower limbs muscle strength, enhance the breathing cycle function, make enough oxygen into the body, improve breathing difficulties and fatigue symptoms, make the arm before exercise, Stretching the legs, bending over, etc. to prepare for the activity, and after the exercise, step in the finishing position.
Scientific use of drugs
Using bronchodilators on demand, standardizing the use of glucocorticoids under the guidance of specialists, and rational use of antibiotics, Individualized conditioning treatment options.
Dynamic monitoring of pulmonary function indicators
Clinical diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease requires lung function indicators, attention to your own health should understand your lung function, dynamic Monitoring lung function can determine the state of your condition and can provide the most reliable basis for using bronchodilators and adjusting treatment options. The benefits of a family-configured peak flow meter cannot be measured economically, and the price of a simple lung function tester is much smaller than that of an electronic blood pressure monitor. Dynamic monitoring of lung function requires a habit.
Building a good doctor-patient partnership
The diagnosis and treatment of any disease is a manifestation of an equal partnership between doctors and patients. The party should provide the most beneficial medical information, the most scientific diagnosis and treatment plan to solve the doubts and treatment guidance of the patient. The patient should give the doctor the most direct and true feelings, the way of medication, the doubts in the heart and the help needed. Keep the contact between the two parties and get the information of the other party and the help of the doctor at any time.