Potted Camellia Breeding Techniques

Potted Camellia Breeding Techniques

Planting Camellia Breeding Techniques Upper Potted Seedling Management Points

The Camellia is also known as Camellia, which is Camellia, Camellia is an evergreen shrub or small tree. It grows lush, evergreen, and has a rich and graceful appearance. It is one of the top ten traditional flowers in China and one of the world’s famous flowers. It has high economic value and ornamental value, such as Zhang’s Red Camellia, Vietnam. The golden scented tea, which is known as the “Panda of the Botanical World” and the “Queen of the Tea Queen”, has a very high health value. Camellia leaves are evergreen, and the colors are gorgeous and beautiful. It is suitable for family potting and for family and environment beautification. The Camellia flowering period is long, and it is open in the cold winter when the flowers are dying. The flowering period is during the New Year’s Day and the Spring Festival, so it is very popular among the general public.

The Camellia can grow normally only in an ecological environment that is warm, bright, humid, and slightly acidic in the soil. There are two ways to cultivate camellia in the field of planting and potting. The potted camellia is better than the ground tea planting in the management of the tube, and it is technically difficult. Through the practice of various effective potting techniques, some cultivation techniques are summarized.

1 Growth Environment

The suitable temperature for potted camellia growth is 18-25 °C, the relative humidity is 70%-80%, and the shading rate is 50%-70%. Avoid direct sunlight.

2 Cutting propagation

Camellia is suitable for growth in fertile, moist, well-drained, slightly acidic soils. It is shaded and sheltered, and it is not resistant to sun exposure. Summer is a good season for cutting and breeding camellia.

2.1 Cutting time

The annual cutting of Camellia can be carried out in the Pearl River Delta region, from early April to late May, and from late August to mid-September. These two periods are the spring shoots of Camellia and the germination stage of autumn shoots. The roots of cuttings at the end of spring are fast, while the cutting time in autumn is relatively long, and the survival rate is relatively low.

2.2 Cutting the cuttings

The first choice is to grow healthy, well-fed, and no obvious pests and diseases of the seedlings, and choose to distribute in the upper and middle parts of the canopy. The annual semi-lignified branches are used as cuttings, and the inner lychee, long branches and weak branches cannot be used as picking branches. After the cuttings are cut into lengths of about 12-15 cm, the lower ends of the branches are immersed in a solution of chlorothalonil or carbendazim 0.167% to 0.200% for disinfection and sterilization.

2.3 Preparation for Inserting Beds

In the awning, a number of beds with a width of 1.2 to 1.5 m and a length depending on the actual conditions are established. The cutting substrate is a fine river sand. 4 parts and 6 parts of yellow heart soil, uniformly mixed and disinfected with potassium permanganate, and then placed on a bed with a thickness of 20-25 cm. The bed surface is covered with 1 cm thick pure sand to prevent soil compaction or soiling of the leaves.

2.4 Cuttings

First remove the excess leaves from the cuttings, leaving only 2 to 3 functional leaves to prevent water from dehydrating from excessive leaves. . The upper end of the cuttings should be smoothed, and the lower end should be cut into a horseshoe shape, and the contact surface with the insertion bed should be added. Then the lower end of the cuttings should be coated with the root water containing 0.05% concentration of naphthaleneacetic acid, and the small wooden sticks should be used for cutting. The hole depth is about 1 /2 ~ 1 /3 of the length of the cuttings, and then insert the cuttings. After the insertion, the bed soil must be pressed tightly to make the cuttings and the soil closely contact, which is the key to survival.

2.5 Post-plug management

Pour the water into the bed immediately after the insertion, and press the bed with your fingers again to ensure that the cuttings are in close contact with the soil. The greenhouse uses shade shades of 75%-85% shading to prevent direct sunlight. In general, the temperature in the shed should be kept at 25~30°C, and the air humidity should be above 75%, so that the leaves of the cuttings remain moist. In the summer high temperature, the micro-spraying facility should spray water more than 3 times a day, not only to cool down, but also to keep the bed wet but not to accumulate water. If the water is too long, it will rot. Disinfect once a week with a fungicide. After half a month, you can spray 0.1% urea solution or special foliar fertilizer for foliar topdressing to facilitate rooting and long leaves. Cutting the seedlings for a long period of 1a, after growing roots and young shoots, you can go to the basin.

3 Upper basin

3.1 Container selection and treatment

The size of the pot should be selected according to the size of the seedling. Regardless of which pot is used, the volume should be such that the roots of the camellia are fully developed without extra space. If the flower pot is too large, it may cause poor drainage. If the flower pot is too small, it will not provide enough water and nutrients for the camellia. Therefore, it is usually required to install large pots and small pots. As the Camellia grows, it is necessary to change the basin, from small to medium to large. Before the upper basin, new flower pots (such as tile pots, pottery pots, etc.) should be placed in clean water for 1~2 days, and the alkali is removed to prevent the pots from absorbing water and damaging the roots of the flowers; the old pots are rinsed with water and cleared. The original soil and moss adhered to the pot wall, which is good for ventilation and water seepage.

3.2 Potting soil selection

Select the suitable acidic soil for the upper basin. Camellia prefers fertile, well-drained slightly acidic soil, loose and breathable, well structured, rich in organic matter. Red and yellow loam or humus and fired soil. According to the ratio of yellow loam: peat soil 6:4, the potting soil should be disinfected before the upper basin. In the summer, when the high temperature is high, the prepared potting soil can be directly exposed to the sun for ten days, and the potting soil can be disinfected by ultraviolet sterilization and high temperature insecticide. It can also be watered with 0.5% potassium permanganate solution and can be planted after 5 days.

Before the tea flower is placed on the basin, first cover the drain hole on the bottom of the basin with a tile pad, then put a thin layer of coarser grain on the flat bottom and about 3cm thick. Put the camellia plant into the flower pot, centering on the right Place the fine soil around the roots, place the medium-grained soil on the side of the basin, and use a wooden stick to smash the soil along the edge of the basin or gently shake it with the hand-dwelling basin to compact the soil. The mud should be lower than the mouth of the basin by about 3cm, and the potted tea will be placed in the shade and ventilated place.

3.3 Cutting seedlings on the pots

The seedlings grow 1a in length, grow roots and shoots, and can be placed on the basin. Before inserting the seedlings, first insert the bed into the water, and then dig out the cutting seedlings with the root substrate. Note that the root mud can not be scattered. If there is loose, the roots should be coated with mud to ensure survival. At the same time, the selected container or flower pot is first filled into 1 /3 of the potting soil, and then the excavated cutting seedlings are placed upright in a container or a flower pot, and the root of the seedling is placed on the surface of the potting soil, then continue Fill the potting soil until it reaches 1~2cm above the root and neck of the seedling, make sure that the roots of the seedlings are buried in the potting soil, press the potting soil with your fingers, and then drench the water, then press the Miao Fuzheng again.

3.4 Potted Camellia for Pots

Generally, the plants and roots of the teapots grow gradually, and they are overcrowded in the original container, which is likely to cause the plants to grow normally. At this time, you need to change the basin. Change the potted plants from small pots to large pots, replace the new potting soil, and clean the roots and roots.

3.4.1 Camellia changing time In addition to the spring and spring shoots in the spring and spring, the camellia leaf buds are not full at the beginning of February each year, and are in a state of sleep. At the beginning of May, the sprouts of the new shoots of the plants have been transformed into lignification, and the leaves can be changed when the leaves turn green. It is not possible to change the pot in the hot summer, and the high temperature is likely to cause water loss, making it difficult to recover the tea after the pot change.

3.4.2 Method of changing pots The new flower pots are larger than the original pots, and a certain amount of potting soil must be prepared in advance as a source of fertilizer supplement. The new potted soil should be suitable for the growth of the original flower. The soil should be prepared first, and the soil should be pH between 5.5 and 6.5. The loose and breathable structure is rich in organic red or yellow soil or humus soil.

3.4.2.1 Pour the basin When changing the basin, the soil and the flowers in the original pot should be poured out together to make the soil mass intact and protect the soil. The root system within the group. The original plant flower must not be pulled out or excavated from the pot to avoid damage to the root system, which is not conducive to normal growth after changing the pot. The inverted pot is to pour the flower seedlings out of the original flower pot. Before changing the basin, let the potting soil be slightly dry. Generally, stop the watering for 1~2d before pouring the pot. Do not water, make the potting soil properly dry, reduce the weight of the potting soil and facilitate the operation, which is more conducive to the separation of the pot and the root soil. Completely poured out. Not easy to damage the root system.

3.4.2.2 Root Treatment The earthworms that are poured out of the original basin are often surrounded by a large number of old roots or dead roots. The roots of the old roots, the dead roots and the old soil are peeled off to give birth to the new roots. If the surface around the root mud is covered with new white roots, it can be directly loaded into a large flower pot.

3.4.2.3 Filling the pot First cover the bottom of the new pot with tiles, then lay a layer of padding, and then treat the treated old soil. The group is placed in the basin, so that the potting soil is ventilated and ventilated, and the drainage is good, which is beneficial to the recovery and growth of the root system of the plant. Fill the soil around the earthen earth with potting soil.

3.4.2.4 Watering After changing the pot, pour water into the new pot to promote the growth of new roots. Drain the root water and observe that the water flows out from the bottom of the basin, and the planting process is completed. Place the potted tea seedlings in a cool, ventilated place for a few days, then manage them as normal. In addition, pay attention to the growth of camellia before planting for one month, the water in the soil, spray water 2 to 3 times when dry, fully supply plant nutrition, which is conducive to growth.

4 Management of potted plants

4.1 Reasonable watering

To ensure the normal growth of seedlings, the water should be properly and reasonably drenched. Can not be drenched to the wet and dry, in the drought and high humidity season, it is better to increase the water spray, morning and evening, through the leaf surface spray, that is, increase the environment and wash the leaf dust, so that the leaves are clean and beautiful, conducive to photosynthesis Action and absorption to reduce the occurrence of pests. The potting soil should be kept moist, but it should not be soaked for a long time, which is easy to cause rotten roots.

4.2 Fertilization of tea pot seedlings

The method of using thin application is based on organic fertilizer, supplemented by chemical fertilizers, such as compound fertilizer and peanut bran. Note that after changing the pot of Camellia, the root system of Camellia has not fully recovered, and it can not be fertilized immediately. After 6 months, the stems and leaves of Camellia grow into a vigorous period. At this time, the fertilizer is applied once or twice a month, and the number of fertilization of potted plants is higher than that of ground seedlings. More, fertilization should be applied to the pot next to the pot, not to apply roots and stems. Before top dressing, it is best to loosen the soil, so that the fertilizer is easy to penetrate into the soil, and once the fertilization is carried out, the water is sprayed once, the dissolution of the fertilizer is promoted, the roots of the camellia are absorbed, and the accumulation of fertilizer is avoided, and the germs are burned under the hot and humid conditions. root. After September, the camellia began to bloom until the flowering period in November. It is necessary to apply 1 to 2 times of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, and spray 1 to 2 foliar fertilizers per month.

In the growing season, sufficient water should be maintained, and the leaves should be sprayed once a day to maintain a high air humidity, and the shade in summer is 50% to 60%. Apply water fertilizer once a month, and apply heavy fertilizer before and after the new shoots. After August, gradually control the fertilizer, and stop the fertilizer after September to promote the formation of flower buds, and then chase the liquid fertilizer after the flower buds are formed.

4.3 Tea flowerpot seedlings pruning buds

According to the tree-shaped features, the inner lychee and weak branches are trimmed, and the excess flower buds are removed, and 1 to 2 buds are retained. Generally, 1 to 2 buds can be left on the strong branches, and the flower buds on the weak branches can be completely removed. In order to ensure the ornamental effect during flowering, the flower buds retained during the flower buds should be large, medium and small, so that the potted camellia continues to bloom and prolong the flowering period.

4.4 Pest Control

The main pests and diseases commonly found in tea pots are anthracnose, spider mites, aphids, and chafers. In the prevention and control of Camellia pests and diseases, we must implement the principle of “prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control”, and follow the principle of “agricultural prevention and control, physical prevention and control, supplemented by chemical prevention and control”, and strengthen the use of agricultural control, biological control, physical control and chemical control. The method is to avoid the use of highly toxic residual chemical pesticides.

 potted tea flower breeding technology Potted seedling management points Planting Camellia Breeding Techniques /a>