Is the ketogenic diet that only eats meat really resistant to cancer?
In recent years, the ketogenic diet of “eat meat and meat” has become popular all over the world, especially in the fitness circle. This kind of “inconceivable” diet has always been controversial.
Recently, a new study published in Nature magazine linked the “ketogenic diet” to cancer and brought it back into view. Some people may have heard about this term.
Indeed, the “codone diet” Not something new. As early as the last century, it began to treat children with refractory epilepsy and has been widely promoted worldwide. Currently, about 80 centers in 45 countries offer ketogenic diets.
What is the difference between a ketogenic diet and a traditional diet?
Our traditional diet is based on carbohydrates, such as rice, noodles, buns, steamed buns, etc. These will probably account for 45-60% of the energy of the whole day, and the fat content is about 20%. about.
The ketogenic diet has a significant change in the ratio of nutrients. It uses fat and protein as the main food sources, such as meat, fish, eggs, cheese, nuts, cooking oils (such as olive oil, coconut oil), avocado, butter, etc., which account for 67% of the energy needed for the whole day. ~80%, the minimum amount of carbohydrates needed to reach the human body, only 5%.
The characteristics of the ketogenic diet are summarized as follows: low calorie, enough protein, high fat, low carbohydrate.
The ketogenic diet can really cure disease?
Treatment of epilepsy
The ketogenic diet is a special medical dietary formula that forces the body to use fat as its primary source of energy by simulating the metabolic state of human hunger. Under normal circumstances, the carbohydrates in the diet are directly converted into glucose in the body after digestion and absorption, and glucose is also a stimulant for patients with epilepsy. The goal of the ketogenic diet is to produce no ketone, but a ketone. The body has the effect of calming and suppressing appetite. Clinically, it has been found that the level of ketones in the blood is directly related to the good control of seizures. In the process of eating ketogenic diet, if the unplanned sugar is ingested, the brain will give priority to use, which will cause fluctuations in the ketone body. It may cause a recurrence of seizures.
Carbohydrates are converted to glucose in the body, which stimulates insulin release and stores excess glucose into glycogen. While the carbohydrates in the ketogenic diet are extremely low and the total calories are not enough, the body mistakenly thinks that they are starving, so that insulin release is reduced and glycogen is consumed. The liver will mobilize fat in the body, converting it into medium-long-chain fatty acids and various ketone bodies, instead of glucose to power each organ. Many studies have pointed out that for patients with type 2 diabetes who are eligible for ketogenic diets, a reduction in carbohydrates helps to eliminate a substantial increase in blood sugar, reduce the need for insulin, and reduce the use of oral hypoglycemic agents.
Based on the same principle, the ketogenic diet has also become a world in the fitness industry, and is highly sought after by weight-loss people.
There are also many rickets for the ketogenic diet. In March of this year, in the “Best Food List of 2018” released by US News and World Report, the “codone diet” was unfortunately bottomed out and was rated as “the most unhealthy diet.”
New research: Can the ketogenic diet fight cancer?
This time, a joint team from Columbia University and Cornell University found that the ketogenic diet can improve the anti-cancer ability of some patients.
In order to understand how the ketogenic diet works, let us first understand the classic protein PI3K. Mutations in PI3K are one of the most common causes of cancer in humans. In response to this protein, PI3K inhibitors have been developed early to control and treat cancer. However, the effects of these drugs are not ideal.
Dr. Hopkins, the lead author of the study, and other co-authors confirmed that elevated insulin levels can reactivate the PI3K pathway in pancreatic tumor mice when treated with the PI3K inhibitor Buparlisib. The PI3K pathway is relatively ineffective once it is reactivated. So they began to find solutions from the perspective of endocrine.
Previously, many studies have shown that the ketogenic diet can quickly consume the storage of hepatic glycogen, thereby reducing the increase in blood glucose caused by PI3K inhibitors, increasing the body’s sensitivity to insulin, and reducing the body’s Insulin levels.
To test the potential of the ketogenic diet, in a mouse experiment, the researchers added a metformin or sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or ketamine while using a PI3K inhibitor. Dietary treatment of mice. By comparison, the ketogenic diet in the three has done the best in reducing glucose and insulin peaks and down-regulating tumor growth signals.
Dr. Hopkins said: “The ketogenic diet reduces glycogen stores, so mice cannot release glucose to counteract PI3K inhibition. This suggests that if the glucose peak and subsequent insulin feedback are prevented, the drug can Effectively control tumor growth.”
However, he also pointed out that a separate ketogenic diet may not help control the development of cancer, and in some cases may even be harmful. In fact, when scientists did not use the PI3K inhibitor graduate ketone diet in several cancer mice, the ketogenic diet had little effect on the tumor, which in turn caused some leukemias to grow faster.
Next, the researchers will investigate whether it is safe to combine FDA-approved intravenous PI3K inhibitors with the ketol diet specially prepared by nutritionists, and whether it can improve breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and leukemia. Or the prognosis of patients with lymphoma.
Han Ding’s good doctors reminded that the application of ketogenic diet in cancer is still to be further studied. At the same time, considering the difference in cancer types and individual differences, cancer must follow individualized precision medicine, and there is no one-size-fits-all “magic therapy.” For patients who have hope for treatment, it is not easy to try a therapy that is not supported by sufficient evidence, so as not to delay the timing of treatment, but it is not worth the loss.
Benjamin D. Hopkins, et al. Suppression of insulin feedback enhances the efficacy of PI3K inhibitors, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0343 -4