How is Camellia planted with high yield? Oil-tea preservation and fruit-preserving technology
Oil tea has good economic value and high nutritional value. Long-term consumption is beneficial to the human body. With the improvement of people’s living water products, the demand for oil tea market is getting bigger and bigger, and it has a good planting prospect. So, do you know how to grow oil tea can produce high yield? If you don’t know, you can learn together with Xiaobian.
1. Camellia Influencing factors
1. The main reason for the buds of the oil tea is that the water and nutrients are out of balance during the physiological process. The study found that if there is only one flower bud at the top of the spring shoot, it will not fall buds; if there are many buds, the buds in the lower part of the branches will often fall off, and the rate of buds in the spring shoots will continue to grow up to 45.5%, but not on the spring shoots. Long summer shoots, the rate of buds is only 5.1%. At the same time, the lack of soil moisture can also cause the flower buds to fall off. For example, continuous high temperature and dry weather in summer and autumn will cause a large number of buds of Camellia oleifera.
2. Falling flowers. (1) Camellia is an alienated pollination plant. The flowering period is not met, the pollination affinity is not high, or self-incompatibility is the main cause of falling flowers. (2) Temperature, humidity, wind speed, etc. all affect the activity of pollinators and the spread of pollen. When the absolute temperature of the flowering period is 1~5°C, the pollination is normal and the flowering is less, generally about 10%; when the temperature drops below l0°C, the pollination rate is significantly reduced, and the number of falling flowers is more than 70%. (3) Cultivation measures such as fertilization, pruning, water regulation, and pest control can effectively improve the fruit set rate of Camellia oleifera. Adequate water and fertilizer conditions can ensure the nutrients required for flowering and pollination of oil tea; rational pruning promotes the growth and development of camellia and fruit by balancing nutrient distribution, improving ventilation and light transmission conditions, reducing pests and diseases.
3. Fruit drop. There are many factors affecting the fruit drop of Camellia. On the one hand, the peak period of the two physiological fruit drops of Camellia is in March and July to August. On the other hand, affected by factors such as variety, nutrients, water, climate, pests and diseases, such as drought, insufficient nutrients in trees, anthracnose, and pests, can cause large drops of oil tea.
Second, oil tea preservation technology
1. Reasonable combination of varieties. Camellia oleifera is an alienated pollination plant. When oil tea is planted, it is necessary to configure a plurality of varieties according to a certain ratio to ensure a higher fruit setting rate, thereby achieving a high yield and stable yield. The oil tea has a low fruit set rate and low yield due to no flowering period. The phenomenon is more common. Therefore, the afforestation of Camellia oleifera should choose the variety of flowers that meet the flowering period and have good pollination and fertilization among the varieties. At the same time, according to the tree characteristics of different varieties, such as Xianglin 5 as the male parent, Xianglin 67 and Xianglin No. 3 as the female parent. Multi-variety configuration.
2 . Improve pollination conditions. First, in the flowering period of Camellia oleifera (from October to December each year), a suitable bee colony can be selected, and artificial bee-assisted pollination can be carried out in Camellia oleifera. After the bee is placed, the bee should be regularly fed with “Detoxification” or “Teabe.” fun”. The second is to improve the conditions of the oil tea stand, increase the ventilation and light transmission conditions, provide a good space for pollinators, and increase the spread of pollen.
3 . Nutritional balance regulation. (1) Strengthening fertilizer and water management. In order to ensure adequate nutrients in Camellia oleifera, fertilization is required 2 to 3 times a year, and from December to January of the next year, 2 to 3 kg of stalks are applied; in spring, from March to April, compounding is applied, and in June, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizers are applied. 3 ~ 0.5 kg /plant for fruit fertilizer. In the dry season, timely irrigation, the rainy season to eliminate stagnant water in a timely manner, to maintain strong tree growth, and promote fruit development. (2) Scientific pruning. Through reasonable tree cultivation measures such as pruning and shaping, the spatial distribution of branches and leaves tends to be reasonable, which can reduce the occurrence of soft rot and anthracnose, thereby preventing fruit drop. Tree cultivation measures such as scientific plastic trimming can increase production. (3) Thinning flowers and thinning. The number of camellia is far greater than the final number. The excessive flowering results of Camellia oleifera will lead to the shortage of nutrients, yellowing of leaves and a large number of fallen leaves, which will easily damage the tree, cause serious years and years, and affect the normal development of the fruit, resulting in many poor growth and low oil content. Small fruit, sub fruit. Therefore, in addition to the adjustment ability of the oil tea itself, the dysplastic flowers and young fruits naturally fall off, and the excess flowers and fruits need to be removed to meet the production requirements. Generally, the time for flower thinning is from October to November, and the time for fruit thinning is from March to April.
4. Control pests and diseases. Soft rot, anthracnose, various pests such as hazelnut pests can cause large drops of oil tea. To prevent and control soft rot and anthracnose, we should first strengthen the management measures for tending and strengthen the tree; during the onset of the disease, no nitrogen fertilizer should be applied, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be added; and the diseased leaves, branches and fruits should be removed in time to burn down the landfill. In the early stage of soft rot, 1% Bordeaux mixture solution can be sprayed, carbendazim double solution, spray once every 5 to 7 days, 3 times in a row; 50% carbendazim and other systemic fungicides can be used in the early stage of anthrax disease Prevention and treatment.
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