Discussion on Cultivation Techniques of Fast-growing and High-yield Tea Variety “Golden Bud”
Discussion on fast-growing and high-yield cultivation techniques for tea variety “Golden Bud”
“Golden Bud” is a light-sensitive yellow mutant variety, which is a wonderful species in the tea tree family. It is cultivated by the Tea Research Institute of Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences and is listed as a national rare tea tree resource variety. Since 2014, Weinan City has introduced “golden bud” seedlings from the original production area of 60-100m above sea level, and has been successfully planted in the tea area with an altitude of 600～1 200m, which has achieved the effect of early early production and early benefits. Combining the practice and experience of introduction of planting in Weinan City in recent years, drawing on the advanced experience of the brother provinces and districts, summed up the “golden bud” fast-growing high-quality and high-yield cultivation techniques.
1 “Golden Bud” Features
“Golden Bud” is very unique in quality, quality and taste. The product processed from its bud leaves has the characteristics of “three yellows” in appearance, namely, dry tea bright yellow, soup color bright yellow, and pure yellow leaf bottom; from the inner quality, high amino acid content, rich aroma, fresh and refreshing . According to relevant information, the “golden bud” amino acid content is as high as 9%, Anji white tea is 5% to 7%, and ordinary tea is 3% to 4%. At present, the general market price is 10,000 yuan/kg, and the highest price is 20,000 yuan/kg. At the same time, when the temperature of the tea tree variety such as Anji white tea reaches 25 °C, the leaves begin to turn green, and the “golden bud” is stable, and the leaves of the plant are geese yellow, so it has good ornamental value and can be used as sightseeing tour. Development and utilization of industrial and garden ornamental trees.
2 The important practical significance of developing “golden buds”
Weinan City is located in the southeast of Gansu Province and belongs to the northern margin of Jiangbei Tea Area in China. Tea production has always been in Weinan City. The characteristic traditional industries of counties, Kangxian and Wudu counties and the important sources of income increase in the poor mountainous areas. However, due to historical and natural reasons, the economic aggregate is small and the poverty level is deep. It is the main battlefield for poverty alleviation in Gansu. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to fully tap the economic utilization value and ecological ornamental value of the “golden bud” and vigorously develop the tea riches and the people’s industry.
3 Key technologies
3.1 Selecting strong seedlings
Generally, the root diameter of seedlings is 0.5cm or more, and the height of seedlings (ligated part) is more than 20cm. More than 2 branches, the root system is developed, the leaves are oily and bright, without quarantine pests and diseases. Keep the roots with soil when the seedlings are in the seedlings, the seedlings are not damaged, and they are properly transported and kept to keep the plants fresh. The quarantine procedures for the external adjustment of seedlings should be complete.
3.2 Selecting plots
It is advisable to choose a flat plot with an altitude of 1 200m or less, a slope of less than 15° or a gentle slope with a slope of 15 to 25°. Xiangyang or semi-yin and semi-yang, soil fertile, soil depth is more than 80cm, soil is loose, texture is good, permeability is good, soil has no compartment, no water, high humus content, nutrient rich and balanced, acidic Or weakly acidic. The surrounding environment is free of pollution and dust from industrial and mining enterprises. At the same time, there must be water sources nearby, and there is no water source to build a reservoir (collecting rainwater).
3.3 Deep-turning the soil
Before planting, the plots for the preparation of tea will be fully deep-rooted, with a depth of 33cm or more, and then leveled and fine. Combine the land preparation to remove dead leaves, weeds, roots and stones in the ground, and remove them from the ground for centralized treatment. Incineration of dead leaves, weeds and roots is carried out to reduce the occurrence and damage of tea tree pests and diseases.
3.4 Ditching and embedding
The planting is carried out in a single row, with a row spacing of 1.30m, and the ditch is directly centered on the line. Flat land with a slope of 10° or less, according to the line spacing of 1.3m, the ditch is directly centered on the line; the gentle slope with a slope of 10~20° is lined according to the contour requirements and the line spacing, or dug into a wide table. Dash according to the line spacing, and then ditch the center line; the steep slope with a slope of 20 ~ 25 °, first dig into a table above 1.6m according to the contour line, and then dash the ditch from the inner wall of the ladder 30cm according to the above method. Generally, the groove width is 60 cm and the depth is 50 cm. Every 667m2 of farmer’s fertilizer (fertilizer) 1 500 ~ 1 750kg, phosphate fertilizer 40 ~ 50kg as the base fertilizer. First apply the farmyard manure to the bottom layer of the ditch, and backfill the excavated mature soil. The depth of the dung is about 20~25cm, then spread the phosphate fertilizer evenly on the cooked soil, and cover the soil of about 10cm, leaving 15~20cm deep. Shallow ditch so that seedlings can be planted.
3.5 Timely planting
In combination with the actual situation of our city, it should be carried out from September to October. During this time, the soil moisture is good and the survival rate of transplanting is high. For other reasons, it is advisable to plant in the spring from the end of February to the beginning of March.
3.6 Reasonable close planting
Plots with low elevation and good site conditions, planted at a row spacing of 1.3m and a nest of 33cm, with 2 plants per litter and a spacing of 8 ~10cm, planting density of 3 100 plants per 667m2; plots with high elevation and poor site conditions, row spacing and nest spacing remain unchanged, 2 to 3 plants per litter, plant spacing maintained 8 to 10cm, plum-type colonization, each The planting density is about 4,000.
3.7 Good Stature Plants
Classify seedlings and seedlings before planting. For the oversized seedlings, combine the first shaping and trimming, and cut the ground part 15 to 20 cm from the ground. Use phosphate water or sticky muddy water for planting or rooting for good rooting powder. Then, the cable is pulled at the two ends of the planting ditch, and then the seedlings are staggered according to the nest spacing on both sides of the rope. The seedlings are filled by hand and filled with soil, and the roots are stretched and the roots are stretched and fully adhered to the soil. The depth of the soil is preferably 3 to 5 cm buried in the root and neck. After the planting is completed, the rooting water is poured once. At the same time, some seedlings should be kept for replanting.
3.8 Strengthening Management
3.8.1 Ground Management
184.108.40.206 Timely watering and transplanting in the same year, in case of continuous On sunny days, watering can be done once every 7 to 10 days. Watering or cloudy days may not be watered. If there is no water source, create conditions, build rainwater rafts or reservoirs (the depth of the pool should not be less than 2m, the size is above 10m3, bricks or stones in the interior, cement plastering). After the seedlings survive, they will be watered once a year in mid-February, and will be watered in time depending on the weather.
220.127.116.11 Checking the seedlings to fill the gap In the spring of the second year of germination, check the survival of the seedlings and timely replant with the spare seedlings of the fake plants.
18.104.22.168 Diving Weeds Combine with shallow tillage, adhere to the principle of “except early, small, and except”. Generally, weeding 3 times a year, 1 time in mid-April, early June, and mid-September.
22.214.171.124 Scientific fertilization (1) Types of base fertilizers: use of decomposed cake fertilizer, human and animal excrement, manure and so on. Fertilization time: from late September to mid-late November. Fertilization amount: Young forest tea garden will apply composting, manure fertilizer 500~1 000kg per year, or cake fertilizer 50~100kg, superphosphate 25~50kg, potassium sulfate 10~20kg. Deep application of ditch, depth of 20cm or more, immediately after application. (2) Staged topdressing generally takes 1 time of tea application and 1 time of fertilizer, and is applied 20 days before each tea collection. Nitrogen fertilizer is the main fertilizer, the total amount of topdressing is 12.5kg in the first year, 16.5kg in the second year, and 25kg in the third year. The annual topdressing is applied twice before the spring tea picking and before the summer tea picking. In the first year, the first top dressing amount accounts for 60%, that is, 7.5kg, and the second top dressing amount accounts for 40%, that is, 5kg; the second year 10 kg was applied for the first time, and 6.5 kg was applied for the second time. In the third year, 15 kg was applied for the first time, and 10 kg was applied for the second time. The three times of topdressing in the year were applied before the spring tea, summer tea and autumn tea were harvested. The first time was applied according to 40% of the total amount of topdressing in the year, and the second and third times were based on the total amount of topdressing in the year. % applied. Use ditch or acupoint application, the depth is more than 20cm, and the soil is covered in time after application. (3) Strengthen the monitoring and prevention of tea plant diseases and insect pests.
126.96.36.199 Reasonable Intercropping Within 2 to 3 years after planting, legumes and green manure are intercropped between rows in the garden. When burying the soil during flowering, the manuscript can also be buried in the soil after harvesting. Tea trees like to scatter light, and plant trees such as bayberry and sweet-scented osmanthus in the tea garden, and plant 8 plants per 667m2.
188.8.131.52 Paving the grass and planting the crop material with crop rods and cut thatch. Spread grass thickness 10cm, 1 000 ~ 1 500kg per 667m2.
3.8.2 Tree management
184.108.40.206 After pruning the seedlings, the first pruning is carried out before the second year of spring germination. Cut off from 15 to 20 cm from the ground. If the height of the tea seedlings does not reach 25 to 30 cm, the first trimming can be postponed for one year. The main stem of the plant is cut off, and the side branches are not cut (for example, when planting, the tea tree has been cut and trimmed for the first time. When the spring tea is finished at the end of the second year, the tea seedling height reaches 35 cm or more, and the second type of pruning can be performed). In the second year after the first trimming, the second trimming was performed before the spring germination, and the cut was raised by about 15 cm from the first trimming. After the second shaping, the third trimming is performed before the spring germination in the next year, and the cutting is increased by about 15 cm than the second trimming. After three times of shaping and pruning, the height of the tea tree has reached 45 to 50 cm, forming 4 to 5 layers of branches, combined with topping and light, and the canopy is basically cultured.
220.127.116.11 Prevent dry freezing (1) Set up a small arch shed After the autumn planting, use a small arch shed to warm and protect the frost, the height of the arch shed is 50cm, the width is 80~100cm, and the shade net or plastic is used. Film coverage. When the spring is warmed up, the cover is removed to ensure the normal growth of the tea seedlings. (2) Covering anti-freeze Before the advent of cooling and snowfall, cover the surface of the tea tree with straw, weeds, shade nets, etc. (3) Smoke and smoke explosion Before the arrival of snowfall and snowfall, set the smoke pile according to the wind direction, topography and area, and ignite the smoke when the temperature drops to about 2 °C.
3.8.3 Pest Control The tea plant pests in our city mainly include tea green leafhopper, tea moth, tea caterpillar, leaf roller moth, yellow poison moth, etc. The main diseases are tea cake disease and tea cloud leaf. Blight, tea round spot disease, etc. Various chemically synthesized insecticides, bactericides, herbicides, and plant growth regulators are generally not used in production. The main application of green prevention and control measures.
(1) Improve the ecological environment of tea gardens and enhance the natural ecological regulation ability of tea gardens; (2) timely picking and moderate pruning; (3) artificial killing or removal; (4) clearing litter in autumn and winter, Deep ploughing of the soil; (5) full application of 0.5 wave of sulphur sulphur mixture in the winter to seal the garden; (6) using frequency-vibration solar insecticidal lamps and yellow boards to trap.