Camellia seedling grafting technology
Grafting technique of Camellia oleifera seedlings
1 Incubation of rootstock seedlings
1.1 Seed collection
The oil tea in Gaozhou area is generally matured before and after frost, and is generally used for seedlings. Mature in mid-November, seeds for seedlings must be harvested with fully mature seeds. The ripening of tea fruit is that the hair on the peel of the camellia peels off naturally and becomes smooth and bright; the seeds are black and shiny or dark brown. The collected camellia can not be dried. The beach is placed in a ventilated place to allow it to naturally crack. After splitting, the seeds are peeled off, sieved with a sieve with a pore size of about 2.0 cm, and the small seeds are removed to select the seeds that are full and full (380). ~ 440 tablets /kg).
Select a sand bed for sowing. Seed the seeds on the sand bed, do not overlap the seeds, and then cover about 10cm of sand, often water to ensure that the seeds have sufficient water when germination, when the sprouts are unearthed leaves can be moved to the bag.
1.3 Method of transplanting seedlings and tube protection
The substrate is packed in a plastic seedling bag of 8cm×15cm on the nursery field, and placed in a seedling bed of 1m wide and one metre. 70%± of yellow heart soil and 30% of fire-burning soil. When the oil tea bud seedlings are unearthed, the seedlings are moved to the bag. When the bud seedlings are put on the bag, do not touch the cotyledons of Camellia oleifera seedlings of the Camellia oleifera seedlings. On the black net, drench the water, after a week, you can remove the bamboo net black net, pay attention to prevent pests and diseases and timely weeding and fertilizing, and ensure that the robust oil tea rootstock seedlings are cultivated until the autumn seedlings are up to 0.2cm thick.
2 Erection of the shade shed, scion collection and storage
After the seedbed is finished, the shed is shaded. The height of the shed is about 1.7~1.8m, and the spacing of the shed piles is 3~5m, that is, 2 seed beds or 3 seed beds are used to make 1 row of piles, which is convenient for people to manage. The shed surface is made by wire drawing, covering the shading net with a shade of 70% or more, and tightly fastened. The scion requires the selection of semi-woody stout spring shoots that are free of pests and diseases and full of leaf buds. After the scion is harvested, it can be used at one time. It can be stored in a cool place with a plastic bag and can be stored for 2 to 3 days.
3 Tools and Materials, Grafting Time, Grafting Method
Blade: Single-sided security blade available. Aluminum sheet: 3 to 4 cm long and 1 cm wide, can be made with toothpaste. Towel: Used to moisturize grafted seedlings. Wine bottle: watering. Small wooden block: 10cm × 10cm for cutting the anvil. Film: Seedbed moisturizer. According to the degree of lignification of the cuttings, some areas are grafted in December of the same year to the second year of April, and some areas are grafted in the late March-June, and the grafting should be carried out on sunny days to avoid the rainy days. The following is a specific grafting method.
3.1 Scioning of the scion
After cleaning and disinfecting the harvested scion with multi-bacterial liquid, cut it with 1 leaf 1 bud and cut it, leaving the whole blade. The cut scion is guaranteed to have a length of about 3 to 4 cm. If the distance between the branches is not long, the distance between the two leaves can be used as the scion. The leaves of the relevant eyelids can be retained, usually for the upper buds, while the lower buds need to be cut. If the scion has been cut, the relevant technician can place it on the small wooden board, then press the upper part of the scoop by the left hand, and the right hand needs to use the tool to cut the lower side, and then the lower part of the scion is made into a wedge shape, and the control is performed. The length of the knife cut is usually in the range of 1 to 1.5 cm. During the operation, it is necessary to strictly control the strength, and it is not possible to damage the blade, and the scion is wrapped with a wet towel. Cutting the ear requires strict mastery of skills, not too much, not too little, to avoid losing water.
3.2 Cutting of seedlings
Cut cutting usually uses two methods: cutting method. Approximately 5 cm from the base, the blade is beveled, and the depth needs to be strictly controlled. Generally, the depth must be shorter than half of the diameter, and the length of the slit is also about 1 cm. Shearing is performed at the edge of the blade to cut off the rootstock; At about 5 cm from the base, the branches were cut with a blade and squatted in the direction of the core of the rootstock tube to a depth of about 1 cm. Jishan Huayao
3.3 Bandaging and cuttings
Aluminum sheets are placed on the incision site, and the scion is inserted in the top-down direction. During the insertion process, the aluminum is used to insert the scion. Enclose to ensure that the cut is level with the aluminum sheet.
4 Management after grafting
4.1 Management of healing period
Under normalization, grafting is successful for 30 days. In this process, the main task is to check the temperature and humidity of the small arch shed. If the humidity is not enough, the spray should be unraveled, so that the air in the small arch shed is kept flowing, so that the humidity exceeds 95%. If there is a higher temperature in the small arch shed, the spray can be carried out, and the film can be uncovered, thereby lowering the temperature of the small arch shed, and spraying at intervals to spray the relevant drugs. Can add some organic fertilizer to the seedlings and timely weeding.
4.2 Management after the connection
After grafting for 1 month, the scion begins to sprout, and when the whole buds are spread, the seedlings are gradually uncovered, that is, the small opening in the early evening At the two ends of the arch shed, the next morning, after spraying the hydration, the cover was gradually opened to open the small arch shed at night. The next day, the sun was not covered, and the sun was violently covered at noon. Finally, the extracted scion blades began to turn green and mature. The film, during this period, should be sprayed regularly to prevent pests and diseases, spray foliar fertilizer, timely weeding and germination, to ensure the robust growth of seedlings.
4.3 Post-emergence and management
Grafting into the mature shoots and entering the seedling stage, during which the black net of the shade can be uncovered and will not survive. The dead seedlings or seedlings are picked out, and the management of fertilizer and water is strengthened. 0.2% ternary compound fertilizer + 0.2% nitrogen water fertilizer is applied every 10 days, and the insecticide is sprayed once every 15 days. The varieties of agricultural drugs used should be rotated to prevent drug resistance. It is necessary to weed in time and prevent water accumulation. When the seedlings are pumped, the tops of the seedlings are more than 30cm. The height of the seedlings can be more than 30cm. The afforestation of the seedlings should be carried out 10 days before the afforestation of the seedlings to ensure the survival rate of the seedlings.
The survival rate of oil tea seedlings grafting is high, and the seedlings grafted than the bud roots grow fast and robust. The method is simple and easy to grasp, and can carry out large-scale production and seedling raising, and the effect is ideal, which is worthy of promotion. The seedlings of Gaozhou Camellia oleifera are used as rootstocks, which have higher survival rate and stronger growth than the seedlings of common Camellia oleifera. Because Gaozhou Camellia is a crude variety, the cultivated seedlings grow rapidly.