Camellia cultivation: high-yield planting techniques of oil tea, as well as grafting and breeding essentials
Oil tea when the evergreen shrub or small tree of Camellia, the tree is as high as 4 to 6 meters, the general tree height is 2 to 3 meters, the bark is yellowish brown, smooth and cracked, and the large white flower is opened in autumn. White flower tea, Camellia oleifera is a unique economic tree species in China, and it is also the most important edible oil tree species in the hilly area of Jiangnan, China. It has been cultivated for more than 2,000 years in China.
Oil tea is highly adaptable and resistant to barrenness Anti-drought, when the main tree species are improved in poor land, Camellia oleifera can be used for oil extraction. The oil content of the seed kernel is as high as 59.2%, which is one of the plants with the highest oil content in China. Tea oil is a fine product in vegetable oils. It can also be used as a raw material for soaps, candles and rust-proof coatings. Camellia oleifera has a long life, high quality and high yield, and is widely distributed in various provinces and regions south of the Yangtze River in China.
Oil tea likes warmth, is afraid of cold, requires The annual average temperature is 16 to 18 degrees Celsius, and the average temperature during the flowering period is 12 to 13 degrees Celsius. The four seasons of Camellia oleifera are not separated from the branches. Generally, the trees are the result of spring flowering, the fruit is ripe in summer, autumn and winter, while the oil tea is different, he is in late October. When the Camellia fruit is fully mature, a large number of flower buds are open, forming a peculiar phenomenon of flowers and fruits and branches. People call this phenomenon a pregnant child.
The cultivation of oil tea requires more sunshine, otherwise the results of low-quality branches and leaves are low, and the oil production is low. The water requirement is sufficient. The annual precipitation is generally above 1000 mm, but continuous rainfall during flowering will affect pollination. It is required to plant in a gentle slope, and the soil requirements are not particularly strict. Generally, it is a deep acid soil in the soil layer, and is not suitable for places with many soils and hard soil.
At present, most of the Camellia oleifera forests are extensively managed. The varieties are not good, the pests and diseases are breeding, and the soil fertility is decreasing. This is the low yield of oil tea and the poor economic benefits. It is an important reason for the shrinking of oil tea production in recent years. Therefore, the existing oil tea forest should be classified and managed, focusing on the ecological conditions, the high proportion of fine varieties, the high forests in the region, the woods are not old, and the forests with large potential for production increase the limited funds, labor and technology to the total area. In 10-20% of the fine forests, the optimization of various production factors enables the investment of less capital to achieve higher economic, social, financial and ecological returns.
Tea oil early harvest technology
In the early-stage high-yield technical system of Camellia oleifera, the key is to adopt the method of sprouting to carry out the breeding of Camellia oleifera, which is one of the ways to rapidly cultivate excellent seedlings. The bud is usually called the bud seedling anvil, the branch of the oil tea is commonly called the scion, and the grafting technique of the oil tea tree bud seedling is to graft the development of the oil tea seed and graft it with the branches of the fine tea tree. The grafted seedling of the oil tea seedling has the main root length. The characteristics of high survival rate of developed afforestation.
Before the grafting, you need to prepare the seedbed. The seedbed needs to choose the acid red-yellow soil with good terrain, good sunshine and well irrigation. When finishing the seedbed, it is required to deepen the land and the depth of the soil is not less than 30 cm. The well-made seedbed requires a comprehensive leveling, and the width of the seedbed is 1-1.5 meters. On the top of the seedbed, cover a layer of about 20 cm of yellow heart soil, and choose the plant that grows from the fine-grained stalks of the native species. The roots are developed and the adaptability is strong. The oilseeds are good. The oil yield is high.
used to make new sprouts The fritters are sanded after harvesting, and some fir branches are placed on the seedbed to effectively protect the young shoots in the sand. In mid-May, when the germination grows to 5 to 6 cm, it should be dug out before it is lignified. Be careful not to damage or touch the seeds. After the buds are dug out, they should be cleaned before they can be grafted. The scion should choose a robust and pest-free branch. The requirement is that the leaf buds that are born in the year are full of thick spring shoots. The length of the scion cut into a heart-shaped part and the length of the incision are consistent, which is about 1.5 cm.
Planting technical essentials
When grafted seedlings are planted in the seedbed, the seeds of Camellia oleifera should be buried in the soil, and the surface of the land should be slightly lower than the marriage. Interface, after the grafted seedlings are finished, it is necessary to permeable the next time, then use the bamboo piece to complete the arching into the seedbed, and then cover the plastic film to moisturize. The plastic film should be tightly pressed around the soil, so that the arch shed is not airtight. When it exceeds 36 °C, it is necessary to uncover both ends of the arch shed for cooling and ventilation.
On the top of the arch shed, it still needs to be built A shade shelter, the height of the shade shelter is about 1.8 meters, so that people can enter and exit the interior for management. The shade shelter is good for the seedbed, and the shade of the shelter is 70%. After the graft is about one month, the seedlings survive. In the critical period, the wet or high temperature will cause damage to the seedlings in this month. The moist environment makes the seedlings easy to rot, and the knife edge is difficult to heal. High temperatures can burn seedlings. These should increase shading, reduce light, and lower the ground temperature. In this way, strong seedlings can be cultivated.
The above is the cultivation and breeding technology of Camellia oleifera. Many of the details are mentioned. I hope that everyone will spend more time exploring and not doing it overnight. At present, tea oil is very popular in the market and has a good market prospect.